Slavery

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Elmina Slave Castle of Ghana

As an African, I find it extremely incomprehensible the ease of collaboration by my ancestors in these heinous crimes against their own fellow Africans.  Sociologists may find benign abstractions to define these but in my layman’s normative terms these barbaric acts are simply the epitome of the greed and tribal hatreds of the time – a brother selling a brother into slavery; and through the likes of these doors below, they were pushed into the infinity of the unknown.   How can we genuinely blame the white man alone for these crimes? – K. Ganu

 

 Despite rejecting outright any claim that guilt is heritable -- a repulsive and irrational notion -- I felt a profound discomfort in Elmina, a discomfort that would recur on this trip everywhere I met a descendant of the black Africans who had sold their fellows -- perhaps an ancestor of mine -- into slavery.” – Henry Louis Gates, Chair, African Americans’ Study Department; Harvard University.

 

Below is the Elmina Slave Castle's infamous "Doors of No Return" in Ghana

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The Obamas at the Cape Coast Castle's Gate of No Return- Ghana, 2009
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Dutch Slave Ship With African Children Bound For the New World - 1868
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Escaped Slaves in Virginia - 1862

A Letter From A Freed Slave to His Former Master Dayton, Ohio,
August 7, 1865

To My Old Master, Colonel P.H. Anderson, Big Spring, Tennessee

                Sir: I got your letter, and was glad to find that you had not forgotten Jourdon, and that you wanted me to come back and live with you again, promising to do better for me than anybody else can. I have often felt uneasy about you. I thought the Yankees would have hung you long before this, for harboring Rebs they found at your house. I suppose they never heard about your going to Colonel Martin's to kill the Union soldier that was left by his company in their stable. Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living. It would do me good to go back to the dear old home again, and see Miss Mary and Miss Martha and Allen, Esther, Green, and Lee. Give my love to them all, and tell them I hope we will meet in the better world, if not in this. I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville Hospital, but one of the neighbors told me that Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance.
                I want to know particularly what the good chance is you propose to give me. I am doing tolerably well here. I get twenty-five dollars a month, with victuals and clothing; have a comfortable home for Mandy,—the folks call her Mrs. Anderson,—and the children—Milly, Jane, and Grundy—go to school and are learning well. The teacher says Grundy has a head for a preacher. They go to Sunday school, and Mandy and me attend church regularly. We are kindly treated. Sometimes we overhear others saying, "Them colored people were slaves" down in
Tennessee. The children feel hurt when they hear such remarks; but I tell them it was no disgrace in Tennessee to belong to Colonel Anderson. Many darkeys would have been proud, as I used to be, to call you master. Now if you will write and say what wages you will give me, I will be better able to decide whether it would be to my advantage to move back again.
                As to my freedom, which you say I can have, there is nothing to be gained on that score, as I got my free papers in 1864 from the Provost-Marshal-General of the Department of Nashville. Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you were disposed to treat us justly and kindly; and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you. This will make us forget and forgive old scores, and rely on your justice and friendship in the future. I served you faithfully for thirty-two years, and Mandy twenty years. At twenty-five dollars a month for me, and two dollars a week for Mandy, our earnings would amount to eleven thousand six hundred and eighty dollars. Add to this the interest for the time our wages have been kept back, and deduct what you paid for our clothing, and three doctor's visits to me, and pulling a tooth for Mandy, and the balance will show what we are in justice entitled to. Please send the money by
Adams's Express, in care of V. Winters, Esq., Dayton, Ohio. If you fail to pay us for faithful labors in the past, we can have little faith in your promises in the future. We trust the good Maker has opened your eyes to the wrongs which you and your fathers have done to me and my fathers, in making us toil for you for generations without recompense. Here I draw my wages every Saturday night; but in Tennessee there was never any pay-day for the negroes any more than for the horses and cows. Surely there will be a day of reckoning for those who defraud the laborer of his hire.
                In answering this letter, please state if there would be any safety for my Milly and Jane, who are now grown up, and both good-looking girls. You know how it was with poor Matilda and Catherine. I would rather stay here and starve—and die, if it come to that—than have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters. You will also please state if there has been any schools opened for the colored children in your neighborhood. The great desire of my life now is to give my children an education, and have them form virtuous habits.
                Say howdy to George Carter, and thank him for taking the pistol from you when you were shooting at me.

From your old servant,

Jourdon Anderson.
 Source: The Freedmen's Book; Image: A group of escaped slaves in Virginia in 1862, courtesy of the Library of Congress. 

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A Group of Escaped Slaves in Virginia - 1862

The History of Eugenics: The Black Holocaust

Black Genocide- The Truth About the White Man's Burden

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Historical Documents of Slavery & Lynching in America
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Images of Slavery & Lynching

The American Legacy of Slavery

Frederick Douglass' Speech on July 5th 1852 on the Meaning of the 4th of July to the Negro. There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven that does not know that slavery is wrong for him.

Albert Einstein On The Negro Question - 1946

Lynching in America used to be a public spectacle with bonfire-entertainment atmosphere surrounding them. School children in the South in particular used to be let out early so that they could attend these events; at times, matching bands were provided to orchestrate the occasion.  These barbaric acts went on for so long (passed the middle of the 20th century) in supposedly one of the “most civilized” nations on earth without revulsion. Invariably, the victims of these despicable celebrations were African Americans and the spectators White.  These are just a few of the extremes or atrocities in the American legacy of slavery perhaps, most appropriately defined in Thomas Melady’s work, The Revolution of Color as “man’s inhumanity to man.”  - Komla Ganu, spring 2010.
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How They Came: Dutch Shipload of African Children Bound For the New World- 1868

From Africa To The New World: The Slaves

Top 6 Western Countries That Benefited Greatly From Slavery.

A Sakinah Peace's Photo
Tribute to The African Slaves Lost at Sea
Underwater Tribute to those Africans Lost at Sea on their Voyage to the Americas to Become Slaves.

Lynching in America During the 20th Century

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Virgil Robert, Thomas Jones & J. Riley, Kentucky - 1908
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Four African American Being Lynched in The South - 1900
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A White Male 1910
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Allen Brooks Being Lynched in Dallas Texas - 1910

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An African American Lynched in Trenton, Georgia - 1915

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An African American About to be Lynched in The South - 1900a

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An African American Lynched in St. Louis Missouri - 1900
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An African American Being Lynched in the Swamps of Georgia - 1902
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An African American Lynched in Oxford, Georgia - 1908
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Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson, Isaac Mcghee Lynched in Duluth, Minnesota - 1920
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John Holmes, Lynched in San Jose, California - 1933
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Leonard Wood Lynched in Pound Gap, Kentucky - 1927
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Rubin Stacy, Fort Lauderdale, Florida - 1935
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Lige Daniels, Center, Texas - 1920
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Ernest Harrison, Sam Reed, Frank Howard - Wickliffe, Kentucky - 1911
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Jesse Washington, Waco Texas - !916

To those who persistently say Black America should get over it: How can one easily get over with these atrocities? Please help us by showing us specifically how we could get over with these. Please help us! Ms. Laura Nelson below was lynched together with her son on the same day in 1911 in Okemak, Oklahoma for crimes only God knows.  

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Laura Nelson, Okemak, Oklahoma - 1911
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An African American Being Lynched in Alabama -1915
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An African American Lynched in McDuffie County, Georgia - 1960
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Augustus Goodman Lynched in Bainbridge, Georgia - 1905
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Bennie Simmons Lynched in Anadarko, Oklahoma - 1913
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The Burning of John Lee in Durant, Oklahoma - 1911
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The Charred Corpse of Jesse Washington, Robinson, Texas 1916
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Clyde Johnson, Lynched in Yreka, California- 1935
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James Clark Lynched in Eaugallie, Florida - 1926
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R. C. Williams- Ruston Louisiana - 1938
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Thomas Shipp & Abram Smith Lynched in Marion, Indiana - 1930
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William Brown, Omaha, Nebraska -1919
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John Richards, Goldsborough , North Carolina - 1916
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Will Moore, Tem Mill, Mississippi - 1919
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Joseph Richardson, Leitchfield, Kentucky - 1913
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Leo Frank, Marietta, Georgia - 1915

Other Historical Documents

A Synopsis of the Amistad Revolt

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Public Notice of Slave Sales

The Economics of the African Slave Trade

Slavery By Another Name - A Book Review By Martha Kramer

Dr. G's Blog

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